Archive for the ‘Linux OS’ Category

VNC Server On Solaris

November 6th, 2022, posted in Solaris
for S11_u10:
pkg publisher -P
pkg install solaris-desktop

Path should be :

export PATH

Find And Delete Files Older Than Some Particular Time Period In Linux

October 9th, 2022, posted in Solaris

Searching By File Timestamp

Unix/Linux filesystems have three types of timestamp on each file. They are as follows:

  1. Access time (-atime): The timestamp when the file was last accessed.
  2. Modification time (-mtime): The timestamp when the file was last modified.
  3. Change time (-ctime): The timestamp when the metadata for a file (such as permissions or ownership) was last modified.


Search and delete file older than 7 days

Lets take an example, wherein we will find and delete file older than 7 days. We will be using the option “-mtime” of the find command for this.

1. Get a list of files using find command as follows:

# find /path_to_directory -mtime +7 -type f -exec ls {}\;

2. If the filenames start with any particular pattern, filter using that as follows:

# find /path_to_directory -name 'filenamepattern*' -mtime +7 -type f -exec ls {}\;

3. After checking and confirming the output, go for removal script(It is very IMPORTANT), otherwise there will be irrecoverable data loss.

# find /path_to_directory -name 'filenamepattern*' -mtime +7 -type f -exec rm -fv {}\;

# find . -name “*.pdf” -atime +7 -exec rm {} \;

4. If this needs to be done on a remote server through cron job and log the filenames of deleted files, use the following command

# ssh user@remote_ip "find /path_to_directory -name 'filenamepattern*' -mtime +7 -type f -exec rm -fv {} \; >> /tmp/backup_deletion`date +%Y%m%d`.log 2>&1"



The -mtime parameter will search for files based on the modification time; -ctime searches based on the change time. The -atime, -mtime, and -ctime use time measured in days. The find command also supports options that measure in minutes. These are as follows:

  1. -amin (access time)
  2. -mmin (modification time)
  3. -cmin (change time)

For example, to print all the files that have an access time older than seven minutes, use the following command:

# find . -type f -amin +7 -print

-newer option

The -newer option specifies a reference file with a modification time that will be used to select files modified more recently than the reference file.

Find all the files that were modified more recently than file.txt file:

# find . -type f -newer file.txt -print

Change Solaris Zones Configurations Online

May 29th, 2022, posted in Solaris
I assume you are aware that Solaris Zones are one of the most valuable features of Solaris since years. In this post I focus on the “Live Zone Reconfiguration” feature available since
Solaris 11.2 for Solaris Zones and since Solaris 11.3 for Kernel Zones. CPU pools, filesystems, network and disk configurations can be changed while Solaris Zones are running.

1. Limit CPU usage of a Solaris Zone using dedicated-cpu

By default Solaris Zones share the CPUs with the global and all other local Zones.
Our sample Zone currently uses 16 virtual CPUs.

# zlogin v0131 psrinfo | wc -l


We can now assign 4 dedicated virtual CPUs to be used by this Zone only.
# zonecfg -z v0131 -r "add dedicated-cpu; set ncpus=4; end"

zone 'v0131': Checking: Adding dedicated-cpu

zone 'v0131': Applying the changes

# zlogin v0131 psrinfo | wc -l


The “zonecfg -r” changes the configuration of the running Zone only.
Make sure to run the command once again to make the configuration persistent for the next Zone reboot.
# zonecfg -z v0131 "add dedicated-cpu; set ncpus=4; end"


2. Create and mount an additional ZFS filesystem
# zfs create v0131_data/myapp

# zonecfg -z v0131 -r "add fs; set type=zfs; set dir=/myapp; set special=v0131_data/myapp; end"

zone 'v0131': Checking: Mounting fs dir=/myapp

zone 'v0131': Applying the changes

# zlogin v0131 mount | grep myapp

/myapp on /myapp read/write/setuid/devices/rstchown/nonbmand/exec/xattr/atime/zone=v0131/nozonemod/sharezone=4/dev=d50045 on Fri Jun 10 11:56:19 2016


And make it persistent
# zonecfg -z v0131 "add fs; set type=zfs; set dir=/myapp; set special=v0131_data/myapp; end"
Adding network interfaces and disk devices are similar to the samples above.

Last Command Examples For Linux And Unix

May 8th, 2022, posted in Solaris

How to find out last logins of users and times informations on Linux/Unix-like operating systems ?

You need to use the last command to show who has recently used the server and logged in and out date/time.


The last command reads listing of last logged in users from the system file called /var/log/wtmp or the file designated by the -f options.


To find out when a particular user last logged in to the Linux or Unix server.


The basic syntax is:

last [userNameHere] last [tty] last [options] [userNameHere]

If no options provided last command displays a list of all users logged in (and out) since /var/log/wtmp file was created. You can filter out results by supplying names of users and tty’s to show only those entries matching the username/tty.

last command examples

To find out who has recently logged in and out on your server, type:
$ last
Sample outputs:

root     pts/1       Tue Jan 28 05:59   still logged in   
root     pts/0       Tue Jan 28 04:08   still logged in   
root     pts/0       Sat Jan 25 06:33 - 08:55  (02:22)    
root     pts/1       Thu Jan 23 14:47 - 14:51  (00:03)    
root     pts/0       Thu Jan 23 13:02 - 14:51  (01:48)    
root     pts/0       Tue Jan  7 12:02 - 12:38  (00:35)    
wtmp begins Tue Jan  7 12:02:54 2014

You can specifies a file to search other than /var/log/wtmp using -f option. For example, search /nas/server/webserver/.log/wtmp:
$ last -f /nas/server/webserver/.log/wtmp
last -f /nas/server/webserver/.log/wtmp userNameHere

List all users last logged in/out time

last command searches back through the file /var/log/wtmp file and the output may go back to several months. Just use the less command or more command as follows to display output one screen at a time:
$ last | more
last | less

List a particular user last logged in

To find out when user vivek last logged in, type:
$ last vivek
$ last vivek | less
$ last vivek | grep 'Thu Jan 23'

Sample outputs:

Fig. 01 Displaying out when user vivek last logged in on server

Fig. 01 Displaying out when user vivek last logged in on server


Oracle Solaris Includes Ksplice

April 8th, 2022, posted in Solaris

Look what we have here :

-bash-5.0$ pkg list ksplice
NAME (PUBLISHER)     VERSION                    IFO
system/ksplice       11.4-      i--


Ksplice supports online Kernel Updates.

Oracle Support delivers in rare cases of Kernel issues
an IDR which are installed online using ksplice.

For a Solaris Admin such an IDR is handled like other IDRs.
It can be installed as usual with the pkg command.


Here a sample:

# pkg info -g ./idr4712.1.p5p idr4712
          Name: idr4712
       Summary: To back out This IDR : # /usr/bin/pkg uninstall -r idr4712
   Description: sparc IDR built for release : Solaris 11.4 SRU # 29.82.3
         State: Not installed
     Publisher: solaris
       Version: 1
        Branch: None
Packaging Date: February 12, 2021 at 10:22:38 AM
          Size: 4.08 kB
          FMRI: pkg://solaris/idr4712@1:20210212T102238Z

-bash-5.0$ pkg list -g ./idr4712.1.p5p -af
NAME (PUBLISHER)         VERSION                      IFO
idr4712                  1                            ---
system/kernel/platform   11.4- ---
system/ksplice           11.4- ---
system/osnet-splice      11.4- ---

# pkg set-publisher -g file:///var/tmp/idr4712.1.p5p solaris

# pkg install idr4712
          Packages to install:   2
            Packages to update:   2
            Services to change:   3
       Create boot environment:  No
Create backup boot environment: Yes

Using spliceadm you can verify the installed splices.

# spliceadm
ID        STATE        CVE             BUGID
471201    applied      N/A             32407818


in case of a problem you can even revert the fix

# spliceadm reverse 471201
Splice 471201 reversed successfully on Fri Apr 23 13:15:20.

# spliceadm status
ID        STATE        CVE             BUGID
471201    not-applied  N/A             32407818


Another powerful and easy to use Solaris Feature