Using VI Editor (Visual Editor)

January 17th, 2021, posted in Linux OS, Solaris

VI Editor (Visual Editor)

You must be familiar with notepad in windows which is used to edit a file. Like-wise we have VI editor in UNIX, LINUX & SOLARIS OS used widely for editing files.
However, Unlike notepad it is little tricky to use. I wish the VI editor would have been developed by Bill gates rather than Bill Joy.
Anyways, guys we don’t have any other option rather than getting aware of all these commands so that we become proficient in working with the VI Editor.

Understanding different modes in VI Editor:
There are three different modes in VI editors:
1. Command Mode
2. Insert/input Mode
3. EX mode

By default when you will open the VI editor, it will be in command mode. In the following sections we will see:
1. How to switch from one mode to another?
2. What are the different VI Commands that we can use in these modes.

Command Mode : 
This is default mode of the VI editor. In this mode we can delete, change, copy and move text.

VI Navigation Commands:

j(or down arrow) To move the cursor to the next line (move down) 
k(or up arrow) To move the cursor to the previous line (move up) 
h(or left arrow)  To move left one character
l(or right arrow) To move right one character
H To move the cursor to current page beginning of the first line.
G To move the cursor to current page beginning of the last line.
b To move the cursor previous word first character
e To move the cursor next word last character
w To move the cursor to next word first character
^ Go to beginning of line 
0 Go to beginning of line
$ Go to the end of the line
CTRL+F forward 1 screen
CTRL+B backward 1 screen
CTRL+D down (forward) 1/2 screen
CTRL+U up (backward) 1/2 screen

Copy & Paste:

Key Use
y+w  To copy rest of the word from current cursor position. 
n+y+w  To copy n number of words from the current cursor position.
y+y To copy a line
n+y+y To copy n lines
p(lowerCase) To paste a copied words/lines after the current position of the cursor
P(uppercase) To paste a copied words/lines before  the current position of the cursor


x deletes a single character 
n+X  To delete n number of characters from the cursor position in a line.
d+w To delete rest of a word from current cursor position
n+d+w  To delete n  number of words from the cursor position in a line
d$ Delete rest of line from current cursor position
D Delete rest of line from current cursor position
d+d To delete an entire line
n+d+d To delete n lines from current cursor position

Few More Important Command Mode VI commands:

u Undo changes (only one time) 
U Undo all changes to the current line 
~ To change the case of the letter
ZZ Saves the changes and quits the vi editor 

Input or Insert Mode: In this mode we can insert text into the file. We can enter the insert mode by pressing following keys in command mode:

i Inserts the text before the cursor 
I Inserts the text at the beginning of the line 
o Opens a new blank line below the cursor
O Opens a new blank line above the cursor
a Appends text after the cursor
A Appends the text after the line
r replace the single character with another character 
R replace a entire line
Esc To return to command mode

 Last line mode or Collan Mode : This is used for advance editing commands. To access the last line mode enter “:” while in command mode.

: To get to collan mode(This need to be entered every time a user wants to use collan mode command)
:+set nu Shows line numbers
:+set nonu Hides line numbers
:+enter+n  Moves the cursor to the n line
:+/keyword  To move the cursor to the line starting with the specific keyword
:+n+d Deletes nth line
:+5,10d Delete line from 5th line to 10th line
:+7 co 32 Copies 7th line and paste in 32nd line
:+10,20 co 35 Copies lines from 10th line to 20th line and paste it from 35th line

:+%s/old_text/new_text/g  Searches old string and replaces with the new string
:+q+! Quits vi editor without saving
:+w Saves the file with changes by writing to the disk
:+w+q Save and exit the vi editor
:+w+q+! Save and quit the VI Editor forcefully.
1,$s/$/” -type=Text_to_be_appended Append text at the end of the line

Using VI editor Command:

vi options <file name>
The options are discussed below:
-r : To recover a file from system crash while editing.
-R : To open a file in read only mode.


Viewing Files in Read Only Mode:
view <file name>
This is also used to open the file in read only mode. To exit type ‘:q‘ command.


Automatic Customization of a VI session:
1. Create a file in the user’s home directory with the name .exrc
2. enter the set variables without preceding colon
3. Enter each command in one line.
VI reads the .exrc file each time the user opens the vi session.
#cd ~
#touch .exrc
#echo “set nu”>.exrc
#cat .exrc
set nu
In the above example we have used set line number command. So whenever the user opens the vi session, line number is displayed.
I know its nearly impossible to keep all the above commands in mind, even I don’t have, but as we keep practicing, we will be knowing most of them.

Working With Directories And Files in Solaris

January 10th, 2021, posted in Solaris

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Working with Files and Directories is very basic thing which we dont want to miss while learning Solaris 10. Lets check few very basic commands.

To display the current working directory:

pwd command: It displays the current working directory.


To display contents of a  directory:

ls command (Listing Command): It displays all files and directories under the specified directory.
Syntax: ls -options <DirName>|<FileName>
The options are discussed as follows:

p It lists all the files & directories. The directory names are succeeded by the symbol ‘/’
F It lists all files along with their type. The symbols ‘/’, ‘*’, (None), ‘@’ at the end of file name represents directory, executable, Plain text or ASCII file & symbolic link respectively
a It lists all the files & directories name including hidden files
l It lists detailed information about files & directories
t It displays all the files & directories in descending order of their modified time.
r It displays all the files & directories in reverse alphabetical order
R It displays all the files & directories & sub-directories in recursive order
i It displays the inode number of  files & directories
tr It displays all the files & directories in the ascending order of their last modified date
Analysis of output of ls -l command:
ls -l → It list all the files and directories long list with the permission and other information. The output looks as follows:
FileType & Permissions LinkCount UID GID Size Last ModifiedDate & ModifiedTime <File/Directory Name>
Following table explains the output:
FileType ‘-‘ for file & ‘d’ for directory
Permissions Permissions are in order of Owner, Group & Other
LinkCount Number of links to the file
UID Owner’s User ID
GID Group’s ID
Size Size of the file/directory
Last ModifiedDate & ModifiedTime Last Modified Date & Time of the file/directory
<File/Directory Name> File/Directory name
# ls -l
total 6
-rw-r–r–   1 root     root        136 May  6  2010 local.cshrc
-rw-r–r–   1 root     root        167 May  6  2010 local.login
-rw-r–r–   1 root     root        184 May  6  2010 local.profile

Understanding permissions:

Following table explains the permission entry:

No permission/denied
r read permission
w write permission
x execute permission

File Command: It is used to determine the file type. The output of file command can be “text”, “data” or “binary”.
Syntax: file <file name>
# file data
data: English text

Changing Directories: ‘cd’ commad is used to change directories.
Syntax: cd <dir name>
If cd command is used without any option it changes the directory from current working directory to user’s home directory.

Example: Let the user be ‘ravi’ and current working directory is /var/adm/messages#pwd
#/export/home/raviThere is also a different way to navigate to the user’s home directory :
#cd ~ravi
#cd ~raju
#cd ~ravi/dir1
/export/home/ravi/dir1In the above examples, the ‘~’ character is the abbreviation that represents the absolute path of the user’s home directory. However this functionality is not available in all shells.There are few other path name abbreviations which we can use as well. These are listed below :
.  → current working directory
.. → Parent directory or directory above the current working  directory.
So if we want to go to the parent directory of the current working directory following command is used:
#cd ..We can also navigate multiple levels up in directory using cd, .. and /.
Example: If you want to move two levels up the current working directory, we will use the command :
#cd ../..
#cd ../..
#cd ..

Viewing the files:

cat command: It displays the entire content of the file without pausing.
Syntax: cat <file name>
#file data
data: English text
#cat data
This is an example for demonstrating the cat command.
Warning: The cat command should not be used to open a binary file as it will freeze the terminal window and it has to be closed. So check the file type using ‘file’ command, if you are not sure about it.more command: It is used to view the content of a long text file in the manner of one screen at a time.
Syntax: more <file name>The few scrolling options used with more command are as follows :

Scrolling Keys
Space Bar Moves forward one screen
Return Scrolls one line at a time
b Moves back one screen
h Displays a help menu of features
/string searches forward for a pattern
n finds the next occurrence of the pattern
q quits and returns to shell prompt

Head and Tail command in UNIX/LINUX/SOLARIS:
head command: It displays the first 10 lines of a file by default. The number of lines to be displayed can be changed using the option -n. The syntax for the head command is as follows:
Syntax: head -n <file name>
This displays the first n lines of the file.

tail command: It displays the last 10 lines of a file by default. The number of lines to be displayed can be changed using the options -n or +n.
#tail -n <file name>
#tail +n <file name>
The -n option displays the n lines from the end of the file.
The +n option displays the file from line n to the end of the file.

Displaying line, word and character count:
wc command: It is used to display the number of lines, words and characters in a given file.
Syntax: wc -options <file name>

The following option can be used with wc command:

l Counts number of lines
w Counts number of words
m Counts number of characters
c Counts number of bytes
#cat data
This is an example for demonstrating the cat command.
#wc -w data

Copying Files: 

cp command: It can be used to copy file/files.
Syntax:cp -option(s) surce(s) destination
The options for the cp command are discussed below :
i Prevents the accidental overwriting of existing files or directories
r Includes the contents of a directory, including the contents of all sub-directories, when you copy a directory
#cp file1 file2 dir1
In the above example file1 and file2 are copies to dir1.

Moving & renaming files and directories: 

mv command: It can be used to

1. Move files and directories within the directory hierarchy :
Example: We want to move file1 and file2 under the directory /export/home/ravi to /var

#mv file1 file2 /var

2. Rename existing files and directories.
Example: we want to rename file1 under /export/home/ravi to file2.

#mv file1 file2

The mv command does not affect the contents of the files or directories being moved or renamed.

We can use -i option with the mv command to prevent the accidental overwriting of the file.

Creating files and directories :

touch Command : It is used to create an empty file. We can create multiple file using this command.
Syntax: touch <files name>
Example: #touch file1 files2 file3

mkdir command : It is used to create directories.
Syntax: mkdir -option <dir name>

When the <dir name> includes a pah name, option -p is used to create all non-existing parent directory.

#mkdir -p /export/home/ravi/test/test1

Removing Files and Directories :

rm command: It is used permanently remove files/directories.

 Syntax: rm -option <file name>/<dir name>

The -i option is used to prompt user for confirmation before the deletion of files/directories.

Example: We want to remove file1 and file2 from the home directory of user ravi.
#cd ~ravi
#rm file1 file2
Note: The removal of a directory is slightly different. If the directory is not empty and you are trying to delete it, you will not be able to do so. You need to use -r option to remove the directory with files and sub-directories.
Example: We want to delete a directory test under user ravi home directory and it contains file and sub-directories.
#rm test
rm: test is a directory
#rm -r test


To remove an empty directory:
Syntax: rmdir <directory name>

Links (Soft Link and Hard Link) : This section has been covered under section :Solaris File System. Please refer to it.

Searching Files, Directories & its contents:

Using the grep command : The grep is very useful and widely used command.
lets take an example where we want to see if the process statd is running of not. Following command is used :
#ps -ef | grep statd

# ps -ef | grep statd
daemon  2557     1   0   Jul 07 ?           0:00 /usr/lib/nfs/statd
root 10649  1795   0 05:29:39 pts/4       0:00 grep statd
Syntax: grep options filenames.
The options used are discussed below :

i Searches both uppercase and lowercase characters
l Lists the name of files with matching lines
n Precedes each line with the relative line number in the file
v Inverts the search to display lines that do not match pattern
c Counts the lines that contain pattern
w Searches for the expression as acomplete word, ignoring those matches that are sub strings of larger words

Lets see few examples:
Suppose we want to search for all lines that contain the keyword root in /etc/group file and view their line numbers, we use following option :
# grep -n root /etc/group

To search for all the lines that does not contain the keyword root:
# grep -v root /etc/group

To search for the names of the files that contains the keyword root in /etc directory :
# cd /etc
# grep -l root group passwd hosts

To count the number of lines containing the pattern root in the /etc/group file:
# grep -c root group

Using regular expression Metacharacters with grep command:

Metachar Purpose Example Result
^ Begining of line Anchor ‘^test’ Matches all lines begining with test
$ End of line anchor ‘test$’ Matches all the lines ending with test
. Matches one char ‘t..t’ Matches all the line starting and ending with t and 2 char between them
* Matches the preceding item 0 or more times ‘[a-s]*’ Matches all lines starting with lowercase a-s
[] Matches one character in the pattern ‘[Tt]est’ Matches lines containing test ot Test
[^] Matches one character not in pattern ‘[^a-s]est’ Matches lines that do not contain “a” though “s” and followed by est
Using egrep command : 

With egrep we can search one or more files for a pattern using extended regular expression metacharacters.

Following table describes the Extended Regular Expression Metacharacters :
+ Matches one of more preceding chars ‘[a-z]+est’ Matches one or more lowercase letters followed by est(for example chest, pest, best, test, crest etc
x|y Matches either x or y ‘printer|scanner’ Matches for either expression
(|) Groups characters ‘(1|2)+’ or ‘test(s|ing)’ Matches for one or more occurrence.
Syntax: egrep -options pattern filenames
#egrep ‘[a-z]+day’ /ravi/testdays
In the above example, we searched for the letter ending with day in the file /ravi/testdays#egrep ‘(vacation |sick)’ leave’ /ravi/leavedata
vacation leave on 7th march
sick leave on 8th march
In the above example we are displaying sick leave and vacation leave from file /ravi/leavedataUsing fgrep command :
It searches for all the character regardless of it being metacharacter as we have seen in case of grep and egrep commands.
Syntax: fgrep options string filenames
#fgrep ‘$?*’ /ravi/test
this is for testing fgrep command $?*
#Using Find command :
This command is used to locate files and directories. You can relate it with windows search in terms of functionality.
Syntax: find pathnames expressions actionsPathname: The absolute or relative path from where the search begins.Expressions: The search criteria is mentioned here. We will discuss search criteria below in details.

-name filename Finds the file matching.
-size [+|-]n Finds files that are larger than +n, smaller than -n, or exactly n.
-atime [+|-]n Find files that have been accessed more than +n days, less than -n or exactly n days ago.
-mtime [+|-]n Find files that have been modified more than +n days, less than -n or exactly n days ago.
-user loginID Finds all files that are owned by the loginID name.
-type Finds a file type : f for file, d for directory.
-perm Find files that have certain access permission bits.

Action: Action required after all the files have been found. By default it displays all the matching pathnames

-exec command {} \; Runs the specified command on each file located.
-ok commadn {} \:
Requires confirmation before the find command applies the command to each file located.
-print Prints the search result
-ls Displays the current pathname and associated stats : inode number, size in kb, protection mode, no. of hard links and the user.
-user loginID Finds all files that are owned by the loginID name.
-type Finds a file type : f for file, d for directory.
-perm Find files that have certain access permission bits.

#touch findtest
#cat >> findtest
This is for test.
#find ~ -name findtest -exec cat {} \;
This is for test.
The above examples searches for the file : findtest and displays its content. We can also use ‘ok’ option instead of exec. This will prompt for confirmation before displaying the contents of file findtest.

If we want to find files larger than 10 blocks (1 block = 512bytes) starting from /ravi directory, following command is used :
#find /ravi -size +10

If we want to see all files that have not been modified in the last two days in the directory /ravi, we use :
#find /ravi -mtime +2

Printing Files:

lp comand : This command is located in /usr/bin directory. It is used to submit the print request to the printer.
/usr/bin/lp <file name>

/usr/bin/lp -d <printer name > <file name>

The options for the lp command are discussed below :
d It is used to specify the desired printer. It is not required if default printer is used
o It is used to specify that the banner page should not be printed
n Print the number of copies specified
m It send email after the print job is complete
lpstat command : It displays the status of the printer queue.  The Syntax for this command is as follows:
lpstat -option <printer name>
The options for the lpstat command are discussed below :
p Displays the status of all printers
o Displays the status of all output printers
d Displays the default system printer
t Displays the complete status information of all printers
s Display the status summary of all printers
a Displays which printers are accepting request
The output of the lpstat command is in the following format :
<request ID> <user ID> <File Size> <Date & Time> <status>
Cancel command : It is used to cancel the print request.
cancel <request ID>
cancel -u <user name>
Note: We can use lpstat command to get the request ID.

How To Update EBS XML Publisher Temporary Directory

January 5th, 2021, posted in Oracle EBS Application, Oracle Queries
SQL> select value from apps.XDO_CONFIG_VALUES WHERE  property_code = 'SYSTEM_TEMP_DIR';

SQL> update apps.XDO_CONFIG_VALUES set value='/u01/share/temp' WHERE  property_code = 'SYSTEM_TEMP_DIR';
1 row updated.

SQL> commit;
Commit complete.

SQL> select value from apps.XDO_CONFIG_VALUES WHERE  property_code = 'SYSTEM_TEMP_DIR';

How To Find the EBS XML Publisher Temporary Directory Via SQL? (Doc ID 1189723.1)


Getting Started with Solaris 10

December 28th, 2020, posted in Solaris

Must to know keywords: Before kick starting the SOLARIS study lets be aware of few important keywords and FACTS about the SOLARIS OS.

Process: A process is a program running or being executed on the computer.Every process has a unique identifier number known as process ID.

Daemon: This would be something new to Window’s user. A daemon is also a process which often runs continuously as long as the system is up.This daemons runs in background. The daemons starts when the system starts and ends with the shutdown.

Kernel: Kernel is the heart of operating system. Its the core defining program for the Operating system.

Shell is the program through which a user interacts with the kernel. It acts as a wrapper between the user and kernel.When a user issues a command on the shell, the shellgoes to kernel and gets back the required information to the user.Shell Script: We can write a series of shell command in a file and execute them. This file is known as shell script.

A brief Introduction to SOLARIS OS:
Solaris from SUN Microsystems, founded in February 1982 by Bill Joy (among others), who was previously involved in the development of BSD 4.1. It was the improved version of BSD 4.1 that was released by SUN as SunOS in 1983. It was based on SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture).

In the year 1996 the Sun Solaris was introduced both for the SPARC and X86 based architecture. It had both CDE (Common Desktop Environment and JDS (Java Desktop System).
Difference b/w SPARC and X86 based machines:
It uses RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) It uses CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing)
It uses SCSI(Smaller Computing System Interface). The benefits of SCSI are: 1. Increase performance
2. Increase data availability
3. Hot Swappable
It uses IDE(Integrated Device Electronic)
Types of Chips in SPARC
  1. PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)It is an 8kb chip which is non-pluggable. It understands only hardware commands & it does not understand OS related commands. The main purpose of PROM chip is to configure the system h/w and to set boot priorities.To go to Open Boot Prompt (OBP) or OK prompt: press STOP (key) + A
  1. NV RAM (Non-Volatile RAM chip)It is also a chip which is pluggable but it contains unique hardware ID which cannot duplicate to other machines.
    NV RAM chips contains complete information about the PROM chip like:
  1. Prom release and version
  2. Host ID
  3. MAC Address
  4. RAM size
Different releases of SOLARIS:
SOLARIS 10 beta released in the year 2004
SOLARIS 10 OEM released in the year 2005
SOLARIS 10 New features released in the year 2006
SOLARIS 11 was released in the year 2011
New Features in SOLARIS 10
  1. Zones: It is nothing but virtual OS something like virtual OS under Vmware. The main purpose of ZONES is to reduce the h/w costs and to utilize the CPU and hardware resource effectively. SOLARIS supports maximum 8192 virtual OS. We can install only SOLARIS OS in virtual OS.
  2. SMF: The main purpose of it is to increase the performance of the server by enabling the services which we required and by disabling the services which we don’t require.
  3. ZFS: It is advance file system which supports maximum 16 Exabytes. It is OS dependent.

Logging into Solaris Desktop Environment:
When a user logins into the Solaris Desktop environment, the login screen appears have following fields:
Start Over:
Various login options: 
When a user selects the options button at login screen, a list with menu appears:
Language: It is used to change the language option.
CDE (Common Desktop Environment)
Java Desktop System, Release 3
User’s Last Desktop: It displays the desktop used at the end of                                                                                             previous session.
Failsafe session: It displays the terminal window instead of starting a desktop session. This can be used when a user has trouble login in single X-terminal window. It is available even when command line logging option is not available.
Remote Login: It is used to connect to remote system.
Enter Host Name …
Choose Host List
Command line login : 
This is used to work in UNIX command environment. Type exit to get out of the command line environment. The desktop login screen re-appears after 30 seconds.
Reset login screen
It is used to reset desktop environment login screen.
Changing User Password:
In Solaris OS, the user password must have following characteristics:
1. Password length: 6-8 characters in length.
2. It contains at least 2 alphabetic characters & must contain at least one numeric or special character such as semicolon(;), an asterisk(*), or a dollar sign($).
3. Differ from the user’s login name.
4. Differ from previous password by at least three characters
5. Contain spaces(optional)
6. Not to be reverse of the user’s login name.
Note: The above password requirements do not apply to the system administrator’s root account.
To change the password perform following steps:
1. Run the passwd command.
2. Type the existing password at the Enter existing password prompt.
3. Type the new password at the new password prompt.
4. Re-enter the new password again at the Re-enter new password prompt.
Securing Desktop Environment session:
1. Locking screen: click Launch -> Lock Screen.
2. Exiting session:Click Launch -> Log out -> OK
Customizing desktop session:
To change desktop background:
Launch -> Preferences -> Desktop Preferences -> Display
To customize workspace:
Move mouse to Workspace switcher area in front of pannel -> Right click on workspace –> Select preferences 
Managing files:
Double click on Documents icon on desktop
Launch -> Open Recent -> Open Documents Folder

Using Online Documentation:
The Online reference manual(man) pages provide detailed descriptions if Solaris commands and how to use them. It explains detained information about the usage of an command.
Syntax: man options command
Example:# man ls

The above example gives detailed information about the ls command.

Scrolling in man pages:
Scrolling Keys
Space bar Displays the next screen of a man page
Return Displays the next line of a man page
b Moves back one full screen
/pattern Searches forward for a pattern
n Finds the next occurrence of pattern after /pattern command is used
h Provides description of all scrolling capabilities
q Quits the man page and returns to shell
Searching man pages:

man intro 
It is used to view descriptive information about sections contained in the man pages.
man -s number <command>|<filename>

This is used for looking a specific section of man pages .

man -l command

This is used to list the man pages that relate to the same command.

man -k keyword
It searches all the man pages containing the keyword specified.
man -k clear
The above command finds the man page that contains the keyword ‘clear’.

man -M path
Specify an alternate manpath to use. By default, man uses manpath derived code to determine the path to search. This option overrides the $MANPATH environment variable and causes option -m to be ignored.

Preformatted man pages:

The catman command is used to create preformatted man pages, which is faster to access, however they occupy more space.  catman  makes  use of the index database cache(windex) associated with each hierarchy to determine which files need to be formatted.
#catman -w
The above command configures windex database for man pages.

The online product documentation can be found from the link:

Few FAQs : You may skip this section if not interested.
DMP(Dynamic Multipathing)
This is miscellaneous information and you can skip if not interested. In computer data storage technology field, dynamic multipathing (DMP) is a multipath I/O enhancement technique that balances input/output (I/O) across many available paths from the computer to the storage device to improve performance and availability. The name was introduced with Veritas Volume Manager software.
The DMP utility does not take any time to switch over, although the total time for failover is dependent on how long the underlying disk driver retries the command before giving up.
IDE Controller (Integrated Device Controller):
The IDE controller is used mostly in X86 based system.
There can be maximum two IDE controller attached to a Motherboard with each port being able to control two IDE devices, for a total of four. So totally 4 device can be connected via IDE Controller in a system.
Following example explains the same:
c0d0 – Primary Master
c0d1 – Primary Slave
c1d0 – Secondary Master
c1d1 – Secondary Slave
There can be maximum of 10 slices in an x-86 based machine. Following example illustrate the same:
c0d0s0, c0d0s1,………c0d0s9
c0d1s0, c0d1s1,………c0d1s9
c1d0s0, c1d0s1,………c1d0s9
c1d1s0, c1d1s1,………c1d1s9
Note: ‘c’ refers to controller, ‘d’ refers to disk and ‘s’ refers to slice.
SCSI Controller (Small Computing System Interface):
There are three types of SCSI controller:
1. Narrow SCSI
It supports maximum of 7-device and only 8 slices
Example:         c0t0d0s0, c0t0d0s1,……….c0t0d0s7
                        c0t1d0s0, c0t1d0s,………… c0t1d0s7
                        c0t6d0s0, c0t6d0s1,……….. c0t6d0s7
Note: ‘t’ refers to target.
2. Wide SCSI & 3. Ultra SCSI
It supports maximum of 15 devices and 8 logical partitions.
The difference between Wide & Ultra SCSI is that the performance is better in Ultra SCSI.

Quaid-e-Azam Day in Pakistan

December 25th, 2020, posted in DAtEs iN a YeAR, PAKiSTAN

Quaid-e-Azam Day,Pakistan

When is the Quaid-e-Azam Day ?

This holiday is celebrated annually on December 25th.
It commemorates the birthday of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who was a notable politician, founder of Pakistan and Pakistan’s first Governor-General.
The day may be known as ‘Birthday of Quaid-e-Azam‘, Quaid-e-Azam meaning Great Leader.


How is Quaid-e-Azam Day celebrated?

On this day, wreaths are laid at his mausoleum in Karachi to commemorate his role in the founding of Pakistan. Special programmes about Jinnah will be broadcast on TV and radio stations.